No one learns as much about a subject as one who is forced to teach it.
– Peter F. Drucker
So imagine you were manufacturing a critical assembly needed to keep our country safe, and all of a sudden over 80% of your assembly team disappeared and you had to hire new, folks with no experience. What would you do?
Well that is exactly what happened during World War II when most working age men went off to fight the war. Factories making bombers, tanks, and other critical war equipment, not to mention goods and equipment needed for day-to-day use at home, lost their assembly teams. The wives of the soldiers took their place, but they lacked training or experience.
This is when a concept known as Training Within Industry, or TWI, was born. The TWI Service was created by the U.S. Government War Production Board, and by the end of the war over 1.6 million people in over 16,000 factories had been trained and certified. Then the war ended and the concept was quickly forgotten – except that Japan, including Toyota, adopted it to help rebuild their post-war manufacturing capability. Toyota leveraged TWI in its continuous improvement efforts, and many believe it played a part in their development of the standard work concept. Only recently TWI once again emerge on the Lean scene in the United States.
There are three main components of TWI:
- Job Instruction (JI): teaches instructors how to train employees faster.
- Job Methods (JM): teaches employees how to analyze processes and suggest improvements.
- Job Relations (JR): teaches supervisors how to deal with employee issues in a humane and fair way.
There are several other components that were used sporadically, such as Job Safety (JS), Program Development (PD), Union Job Relations (UJR), Problem Solving (PS), and Discussion Leading (DL). We’ll focus primarily on the first two, Job Instruction (JI) and Job Methods (JM).
To prepare for Job Instruction (JI) training, the instructor will take the process and do the following:
- Break the process into the key steps.
- Document the key points for each step.
- Document the reasons behind why the step is important.
The training process for JI itself then has the following steps:
- Instructor demonstrates each step of the process to the student, explaining the key points and reasons for each step.
- The student performs the process step by step, with the instructor correcting any mistakes.
- The student performs the process step by step again, this time explaining the key points for each step, with the instructor again correcting any mistakes.
- The student performs the process step by step a third time, this time explaining both the key points and the reasons for each step, with the instructor again correcting any mistakes. Repeat until the instructor is confident the student understands the process.
- The student then demonstrates the process again, the first time silently, the second time explaining the key points, and the third time explaining the key points and reasons.
- The student is allowed to perform the process, with a clear understanding they can ask for assistance at any time without retribution. This is demonstrating respect for people by creating a supportive no-fear environment.
Job Methods (JM) trains employees on how to break down and improve processes. The steps in JM are:
- Break down the job into steps on a Job Breakdown Sheet. Include material handling, machine time, and human time.
- Question every detail of the job. This often uses the “5 W and 1 H” method:
- Why is it necessary?
- What is its purpose?
- Where should it be done?
- When should it be done?
- Who is qualified to do it?
- How is the best way to do it?
- Develop the new method by eliminating steps, rearranging steps, and simplifying steps.
- Propose the new method to the supervisor, test it, and then celebrate the accomplishment.
Both Job Instruction (JI) and Job Methods (JM) involve breaking down the process, although Job Methods (JM) goes into more depth. Because of this, many organizations, like my previous company, use JM as on of their methods of kaizen.
How could this change how you train in your organization? How about the new employee onboarding process?